Копирую отрывки из книги Williama Blum-а «Killing Hope», которую надо бы перевести на русский, но я сильно сомневаюсь, что это когда-либо случится.
А книга должна стать хрестоматийной по истории XX века. Надо бы выкладывать больше отрывков и, конечно, лучше сразу на русском. Но, с другой стороны, и уметь переводить с английского тоже нужно, хотя бы авто-переводчиком — чтобы не оказываться бездумным потребителем содержания, которое пролетает через мозг как одноразовый новостной возбудитель текущего дня.
Jorge Semprun is a Spaniard, a Frenchman, a novelist and film-writer, former Communist, former inmate of Buchenwald. He was at the infamous Nazi concentration camp in 1944 with other party members when they heard the news:
For some days now, we had talked of nothing else. ... At first some of us had
thought it was a lie. It had to be. An invention of Nazi propaganda, to raise the
morale of the people. We listened to the news bulletins on the German radio,
broadcast by all the loudspeakers, and we shook our heads. A trick to raise the
morale of the German people, it had to be. But we soon had to face up to the
evidence. Some of us listened in secret to the Allied broadcasts, which
confirmed the news. There was no doubt about it: British troops really were
crushing the Greek Resistance. In Athens, battle was raging, British troops were
retaking the city from the ELAS forces, district by district. It was an unequal
fight: ELAS had neither tanks nor planes.
But Radio Moscow had said nothing, and this silence was variously interpreted.1
…In the early days of the world war, when defeating the Nazis was the Allies'
over whelming purpose, Churchill had referred to ELAS as "those gallant guerrillas",
and ELAS's supporters had welcomed the British in early November 1944 with a sign
reading, "We Greet the Brave English Army. ... EAM."4
But the following month, fighting broke out between ELAS and the British
forces and their Greek comrades-in-arms, many of whom had fought against ELAS
during the war and, in the process, collaborated with the Germans; others had simply
served with the Germans. (The British Foreign Secretary, Ernest Bevin, acknowledged
in August 1946 that there were 228 ex-members of the Nazi Security Battalions — whose
main task had been to track down Greek resistance fighters and Jews — on active service
in the new Greek army.)5 Further support for the campaign against ELAS came from the
US Air Force and Navy which transported more than two British divisions into
Greece.''6 All this while the war against Germany still raged in Europe.
In mid-January 1945 ELAS agreed to an armistice, one that had much of the
appearance and the effect of a surrender. There is disagreement amongst historians as to
whether ELAS had been militarily defeated or whether the Communists in the ELAS
and EAM hierarchy had received the word from Stalin to lay down the gun. If the latter
were the case, it would have been consistent with the noted agreement between Stalin
and Churchill in October 1944, whereby spheres of influence in Eastern Europe were
allocated between the two powers. In this cynical (as Churchill acknowledged)
Monopoly game Britain had landed on Greece. Churchill later wrote that Stalin had
"adhered strictly and faithfully to our agreement of October, and during all the long
weeks of fighting the Communists in the streets of Athens not one word of reproach
came from Pravda or Izvestia".7 Nor, as Jorge Semprun noted, from Radio Moscow.
"In the economic sphere," Andreas Papandreou noted, the United States
"exercised almost dictatorial control during the early fifties requiring that the signature
of the chief of the U.S. Economic Mission appear alongside that of the Greek Minister
of Co-ordination on any important documents."30
Earlier, American management of the economy may have been even tighter. A
memorandum from Athens dated 17 November 1947, from the American Mission to
Aid Greece to the State Department in Washington, read in part: "we have established
practical control ... over national budget, taxation, currency issuance, price and wage
policies, and state economic planning, as well as over imports and exports, the issuance
of foreign exchange and the direction of military reconstruction and relief
There was, moreover, the creation of a new internal security agency, named
and modeled after the CIA (KYP in Greek). Before long, KYP was carrying out all the
endearing practices of secret police everywhere, including systematic torture.
By the early 1950s, Greece had been molded into a supremely reliable ally-
client of the United States. It was staunchly anti-communist and well integrated into the
NATO system. It sent troops to Korea to support the United States' pretence that it was
not simply an American war.
It is safe to say that had the left come to power, Greece would have been much
more independent of the United States. Greece would likely have been independent as
well of the Soviet Union, to whom the Greek left owed nothing. Like Yugoslavia, which
is also free of a common border with the USSR, Greece would have been friendly
towards the Russians, but independent.
То, что выделено курсивом (мною), кажется довольно знакомым, не так ли?